A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of task. It is the branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. In the field of agriculture, various operations for handling heavy material are performed. For example, in vegetable cropping, workers should handle heavy vegetables in the harvest season.
what exactly is a robot?
It is a system that contains sensors, control systems, manipulators, power supplies and software all working together to perform a task. Designing, building, programming and testing a robots is a combination of physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering, mathematics and computing. In some cases biology, medicine, chemistry might also be involved. A study of robotics means that students are actively engaged with all of these disciplines in a deeply problem-posing problem-solving environment.
As strange as it might seem, there really is no standard definition for a robot. However, there are some essential characteristics that a robot must have and this might help you to decide what is and what is not a robot. It will also help you to decide what features you will need to build into a machine before it can count as a robot.
A robot has these essential characteristics
- Sensing First of all your robot would have to be able to sense its surroundings. It would do this in ways that are not unsimilar to the way that you sense your surroundings. Giving your robot sensors: light sensors (eyes), touch and pressure sensors (hands), chemical sensors (nose), hearing and sonar sensors (ears), and taste sensors (tongue) will give your robot awareness of its environment
- Movement A robot needs to be able to move around its environment. Whether rolling on wheels, walking on legs or propelling by thrusters a robot needs to be able to move. To count as a robot either the whole robot moves, like the Sojourner or just parts of the robot moves
- Energy A robot needs to be able to power itself. A robot might be solar powered, electrically powered, battery powered. The way your robot gets its energy will depend on what your robot needs to do.
- • Intelligence A robot needs some kind of "smarts." This is where programming enters the pictures. A programmer is the person who gives the robot its 'smarts.' The robot will have to have some way to receive the program so that it knows what it is to do.
|1.What is the practical function of the design? (What must my robot do?)
A design's practical functions can include:
- movement How will the robot move within its environment? If it were put in a different environment, would it still be able to move within this new space?
- manipulation How will the robot move or manipulate other objects within its environment? Can a single robot move or manipulate more than one kind of object?
- energy How is the robot powered? Can it have more than one energy source?
- intelligence How does the robot "think?" What does it mean to say that a robot "thinks?"
- sensing How will my robot "know" or figure out what's in its environment? If it were put in a different environment, would it be able to figure out this new environment
|2. What part does appearance (shape and form, surface texture, colour, etc.) play in the design's function? What does the robot look like? Is there a reason for it to look as it does?
Shape and form are important to a design's aesthetic qualities, ergonomics, strength, stability, rigidity, safety
Surface texture, finish and colour can be appropriate to a design's:aesthetic qualities, mechanical, optical and thermal properties, durability, etc.
|3. What materials are suitable for the design?
The properties of a material will determine its suitability for a design. For our work with robotics we have chosen to work with LegoT™. However, there are many different types of materials that can be and are used in the construction of robots.
- strength, hardness, toughness, density
- and the aesthetic qualities determined by colour, surface texture, pattern, etc.
The materials cost and availability are also important factors.
|4. What construction methods are appropriate to the design?
Construction techniques fall into the categories of:
- cutting and shaping
- fabrication - the assembly of the parts using screws, bolts, glues, solder, etc
- moulding - by the application of a force on the material
- casting - using a mould to form the shape of a solidifying material
A particular material can only be worked in a limited number of ways. The method of construction therefore will be determined by the chosen material, the availability of manufacturing facilities, the skills of the work force and the production costs.
|5. What are the likely social and environmental effects of the design?
The manufacture, use and disposal of any product will have both beneficial and detrimental effects upon people, wildlife and the environment. The designer therefore, has an enormous responsibility to consider very carefully the potential effects of any new design. This will include: health and safety factors, noise, smell, pollution, etc.
Gathering information can involve reading, listening, conducting interviews and observing.
A specification is a detailed description of the problem to be solved. It should 'spell out' exactly what the design must achieve.
Creating a Prototype
- testing the design
- troubleshooting the design
You should ideally think of at least three different ways to solve the problem before you concentrate on any one in particular. Sketches and notes are required at this stage. You can also create prototypes using lego for this step. Once you have created a lego prototype, take a digital picture of it. Print out the picture and jot your notes below the picture in your log book. Once you have settled on one solution, go back over the list of specifications you have made. Make sure that each specification is satisfied.
Now it the time to produce some working drawings. These are the drawings that will assist you as you begin constructing the prototype of your structure. (Here again, lego and a digital camera might be your best friend.) You may choose to do your drawings by hand or you might want to use a draw program on the computer to assist you.
Determine a working schedule for yourself. Draw up a timetable showing how much time you expect to spend on each part of the design process. Your planning should also ensure that you have all the necessary materials and equipment that you need to complete your project.
Building your Robot
Construction work can now begin
Programming and Testing your Robot
Now it is time to program your robot. This can be achieved in many different ways. Use can achieve rudimentary intelligence in your robot by using only relays, potentiometers, bump switches and some discrete components. You can increase complexity in intelligence in your robot by adding more sensors and continuing in the same vein of using hardwired logic. By introducing a more sophisticated control element, the microprocessor, you introduce a significant new tool in solving the robot control problem.
Once you have written your program and downloaded into the RCX brick using the Infrared Sender, it is time to test your robot to see if it truly does what you want it to do.
Evaluating your Robot
- evaluate the design
- evaluate the planning process
As building and programming work progresses, and the design begins to take shape, you will automatically carry out tests on the design. You will also need to complete systems tests at various stages of the construction. If any of the tests show that you have failure in a joint, or that part of your structure is not meeting specifications, then you will have to make modifications in your plan.
DEVELOPMENT OF ANDROID BASED GENERAL PURPOSE ATONOMOUS MOBILE ROBOT FOR AGRICULTURURAL USAGE - AGRIBOT
This robotic vehicle is an agricultural machine of a considerable power and great soil clearing capacity. This multipurpose system gives an advance method to sow, plow, water and cut the crops with minimum man power and labor making it an efficient vehicle. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. Moreover the vehicle can be controlled through Bluetooth medium using a Android smart phone. The whole process calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & components interfaced with microcontroller.
DEVELOPMENT OF DATA ACQUISITION ROBOT FOR TOXIC ENVIROMENTAL MONITORING USING WSN – KROTO FINDER
This project is mainly implemented for industrial applications. Mainly for detecting the damages inside the oil pipe that cannot be detected by human beings. Kroto is the Greek word meaning to crack. Inside the pipe, there is very heavy temperature, pressure and toxic gases. So we are implementing a robot that have a camera, temperature sensor, pressure sensor etc which is used to detect the crack and conditions inside the pipe. This data from all the high precision sensors will be transmitted using ZIGBEE protocol from the robot to the control station. The robot incorporates a wireless camera and the data from the cam is transmitted to the frontend Visual studio.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANDROID CONTROLLED SMALL UNIT UNMANNED VEHICLE FOR TODAY’S ARMY
Nowadays robots play an important role in human beings day-to-day life. And Life is very important. Soldiers form the backbone for their country and they are very precious gem to their country. So soldier’s life becomes more valuable. So here is a project which performs the functions of a soldier like firing, walking into the field. With the help of sensors and wireless camera the robots acts as a soldier and the commands are given to the robot through android app.
Some of Android Applications of best robotics Project images_ Best Academic Project _Final Year Projects on robotics IEEE 2017 papers on Robotics_ Best Robotics Project